Wednesday, July 16, 2008

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Monday, December 10, 2007

Lecture 20 - 20th Century


Appeasement - policy developed in the 1930s to try to diffuse crises using only peaceful means
The Manhattan Project - U.S. project to build atomic bomb during WWII 1942 (Oakridge, TN & Hanford)
Bretton Woods - agreement made at the end of WWII to reorder money supply, effectively made U.S. dollar the world reserve currency
United Nations - created during WWII 1945 and ratified shortly afterwards
Isolationism - movement to keep the U.S. out of world affairs, led to rise of Fascism and Nazism in Europe
Decolonization - 1947 England left India, 48 Burma, Sri Lanka, 1950-1980 all of African gained independence
Mao Tse-tung - Communist revolutionary leader of mainland China
Mikhail Gorbachev - Russian leader who transformed Soviet society in the 1980s
Cultural Revolution - Mao's experiment to reinvigorate and re-revolutionize Chinese society
N.A.T.O. - formed in 1949 by U.S. and European nations to protect them against Communist aggression
Senator Joseph MacCarthy - post-war paranoid of Communism

1937 - Japanese fighting in Shanghai, Manchuria (U.S. protested by eventually cutting off oil supply to Japan)
1938 - England and France tried to placate Hitler (misguided diplomacy)
1938 - Hitler dismembered Czechoslovakia, signed a treaty with Stalin and then attacked Poland
1940 - German broke through French defenses (German tanks had radios)
1940 - Battle of Britain, fought in the air
Winston Churchill led England
1941 - Hitler attacked Russia in the spring, by winter they had enormous supply difficulties, as they were far from home
Dec 7 - Japanese aircraft sank nearly entire Pacific fleet in Pearl Harbor
Jan 3, 1942 - U.S. surprised Japanese fleet on its way to Midway
1942 - German surrender in Stalingrad
Jul 16, 1945 - First test of bomb
Aug 6, 1945 - Hiroshima
Nagasaki 120,000 people killed outright in both attacks
Aug 14, 1945 - Surrender on USS Missouri

1944 - Bretton Woods created the IMF - purpose to avert currency crisis
1945 - Leagues of Nations dissolved, transferred to United Nations
Soviets refused to participate
Berlin blockade, Russians tried to keep resupply trucks out - U.S. organized airlift
May 1949 - Soviets lifted blockade
Apr 1949 - NATO treaty signed
1951 - Germany and France formed Iron and Coal community, evolve into common market

1961 - Julius Nyerere of Tanzania

Cold War - containment of Communism, nuclear arsenal

1952 - U.S. exploded first hydrogen bomb, Russia 1 year later, Britain in 1955

Communists and nationalists fought Chinese civil war, 1949 Mao became chairman

1945 - Korea divided in two
1950 - Communists invaded the south, American troops came to its aid, Japan was primary supply base

Post war was period of fairly rapid economic growth

1948 - Israel created by U.N.

1950s - 60s - Newly Industrials Countries, import substitution (Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong)

Latin American countries such as Mexico and Brazil were not as successful

1960s - American students protests Vietnam war
British - ban the bomb
French students - trying to overthrow government
Concerned about nuclear weapons, technology, environmental problems
Photos of Earth from space
Martin Luther King, Jr., NAACP to protest for freedom

African countries had exports that didn't bring in much in the way of earnings, therefore they couldn't get going economically or industrially

China - large population, 1949-1970s under Communist regime, since then has moved toward market economy, has a skilled merchant class which is networked internationally, set up special economic zones, invited foreign investment, allowed businesses to go back into private ownership, large amounts of environment devastation, have not yet privatized inefficient state enterprises

India - followed state led pattern after independence, but remained democracy, tremendous poverty, unbridled population growth, invited foreign investment, invested in education, ethnic tension

1961 - American advisers in Vietnam
1970 - U.S. strategic oil interests in Middle East
1973 - Withdrawal from Vietnam

1965-1976 - Mao tried to create egalitarian society "cultural revolution"

Economic regions -

20th century - greatest rate of inflation ever

Sunday, December 9, 2007

Maps of War

Maps of War has an awesome animated map of empires over the ages. As the title says, it's "5000 years of history in 90 seconds." Very cool. If you haven't looked at Maps of War, I highly recommend it.

This map of religious expansion is amazing as well.

Lecture 19 - First World War


Somme - one of the major offenses undertaken by the Allies against the Germans
Tannenberg - great battle won by Germany on the Eastern front, helped bring down Russian regime
Vladimir Lenin - leader of the Communist Russian revolution
Peter the Great - 18th century czar who sought to modernize Russia
Soviets - "committee" who rule much of Russia during the beginning of the revolution
League of Nations - suggested and created by President Woodrow Wilson to help resolve world conflicts, U.S. didn't join. World Health Organization also created
Fascists - group who believed in strong state control to restore order to society and the economy
Meiji - name taken by Japanese emporer in 1867/68 began creation of a modern industrialized Japan
Sunrise Industries - industries which will grow and create jobs in the future
Joseph Stalin - successor to Lenin in 20s/30s who transformed Soviet state at considerable expense
Zaibatsu - group of large Japanese firms, the managers who ran them, and the values that they shared
Adolph Hitler - leader of Nazi Germany in the 1930s & 40s
All Quiet on the Western Front - Novel by Erich Maria Remarque about the horrors of World War I

Artillery killed more soldiers than machine guns
Italy joined allies in 1915
Hemingway wrote A Farewell to Arms based on his experiences
600,000 French and British killed
400-500,000 Germans killed
2,000,000 Russian deaths

Canned food
Tank 1916
Poison gas

U.S. brought into war 1917 - bankers had loaned millions to France and Britain, created boom economy in U.S., launched aircraft industry

Czar Nicholas II
Peter the Great 1689-1725 introduced Western technology
1861 - serfs liberated in Russia by Czar Alexander II
1866 - centralized bank created in Russia
1890s - expanded railways
French were active lenders to the Russians, concluded in defensive alliance
Coal mines, iron, oil - Russian industrial growth matched growth of other nations including the U.S.
1914 - Russia had passed through the first phase of industrialization
1917 - strikes and riots were frequent due to stress on food system
Lenin called for confiscation of all land by the peasants, called for withdrawal from war
1917 - Red Guard stormed the Czars palace
followed by civil war and great famine 1921-22

Germans pushed allies to withing 30 miles of Paris
German navy mutinied in 1918, Armistice followed
German economy devastated
New currency was issued 1 mark : 1 trillion old marks

Rockefeller - organized oil industry

U.S. immigration 1870-1900 population almost doubled
1920 - 2nd industrial revolution (automobiles on a mass scale)
Late 1920s - profits went to only about 5% of population
Farmers experienced depressed prices
1929 - stock market crash - global collapse
1933 - 1/3 American workers jobless, 6 million Germans out of work

Stalin d. 1953, replaced Lenin 1927 - launched collective of agriculture, began purging resistance, including those in his own party, killed more people than the Germans did

Benito Mussolini - fascists, used bullying tactics, fear of Communism
Adolf Hitler - appointed chancellor in 1933, removed all opposition, then purged his own party, restored economy, rearmed country, began expansion of Germany

Japanese industrialization - Takagawa was a feudal state (1600), centralized, dominated by powerful Shogun. Produced 250 years of peace and stability. Numerous trading towns and cities, internal commerce, cash crops, undermining traditional feudal structure. Created degree of disaffection in warrior class.

Admiral Perry - arrived in Japan in 1853, initial reaction was hostile
Japanese learned a lesson from the Chinese (overrun by the West)
1867 - Overthrow of Takagawa, restoration of emperor (Meiji restoration)
Many of the Meiji supporters were young (30) samurai and made clandestine trips to the west beforehand
Meiji were rational shoppers, taking what they thought were the best from each place they visited (U.S. education, British postal system)
Capital came from heavy taxes on peasants, this was a key to success
Zaibatsu - built roads, ships, banking, insurance, mining operations (reflected and extended traditional samurai values, sense of loyalty, patriotism) Mitsubishi was one.
Working conditions were harsh, similar to other industrialized countries

Emperor Meiji 1867-1912
Shintoism emphasized the unique nature of the Japanese people, fueled growing imperialism

Friday, November 30, 2007

The Transatlantic Slave Trade

This passed on from Jennifer B:

"I found another [site] that may be of some interest on the topic of Europeans and slavery. At:

This website talks about the particulars as to what people the West Africans chose to give to the Europeans as slaves (debtors, criminals, etc.) It's a fairly interesting read!"

Thanks, Jennifer!

Monday, November 19, 2007

Lecture 18 - The 19th century


Czar - Crown head of Russia
Nationalism - most important ideological force in the 19th century, networks of spies, censorship
Count Camillo Benso Cavour - creator of modern Italy, industrialist, advocated union of Northern Italy, allied with French against Austrians
Otto von Bismark - architect of modern Germany, chief minister of Prussia and Junker
Romanticism - reaction to rationalism and the industrialized world, centered in German universities, spread to France, England and U.S.
Communism - ideology created in 19th century
Louis Pasteur - French scientist d. 1895 helped silkworm growers and winemakers, immunization for rabies, milk pasteurization prevented spread of TB
Charles Darwin - architect of evolution, Origin of Species
Social Darwinism - suggested that society could be modeled after evolutionism
Sigmund Freud - founder of psychoanalysis, interpretation of dreams 1900
Albert Einstein - creator of relativity 1905 (1879-1955)
Sarajevo - place where WWI began 1914 - Archduke Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian terrorist

Conference of Vienna - 1815 sought to re-establish polities of Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France in 1814 and the dissolution of the Holy Roman empire in 1806
Alexander I of Russia - abolished torture, allowed foreign books, liberation of one's own serfs
Metternich d. 1859 - worked to ensure confederation of German states did not allow Prussia to increase in power
Louis XVIII of France - granted limited constitution in 1814, moderate reformer

Guisippe Garibaldi - 1807-1887, leader of Red Shirts
1861 - Kingdom of Italy proclaimed
1862 - Creation of German empire
1863 - Bismarck supported Russians against Polish revolt
1866 - Prussian and Austria went to war. Prussia coordinated troop movements using telegraph and railroad
1870 - French declaration of war against Prussia
1871 - Napoleon III outmaneuvered by Bismarck
Wilhelm proclaimed emperor of Germany in Versailles

1840s - screw propellor
1850s - compound steam engine
1860s - steel hull
1880 - first refrigerated ship from Argentina to Europe

Britain was workshop of world, but challenged by German and U.S.

Frankenstein - attempt to create perfect human, which turned out to be abomination
1850s - more English lived in cities than countryside
Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and London grew substantially
Millions of people went the Americas, Australia, NZ, South Africa

Socialism - Marx and Engels formulated Communism
Victorian era - prudish age, benefits of technological order, railways extended, merchant marine grew greatly
Queen Victoria 1837-1901
Russian opened coal and iron fields in the south, borrowed from French to finance industrialization
U.S. growth after 1870 founded by Britain and Germany

Dr. Robert Cock - studied anthrax, later isolated cholera and tuberculosis, infectious diseases
Joseph Lister - clean hands and operating environment, preventive medicine

Nurses -
1839 - Swan developed cellular theory
Mendel - gene theory
Herbert Spenser - 1820-1903 social Darwinist
Thermodynamics, helium discovered, electricity, x-rays, Marconi's wireless telegraphy
Golden age of written word, new means of making paper brought price down
Tolstoy 1828-1910
Dickens 1812-1870 wrote about ordinary people
Zola (France)
Science fiction was born - Jules Verne
Prussia established training schools for teachers, also had Universities
France had advanced schools as well, had Polytechnique

Mass culture developed - cafes, dancing, beer gardens, bathing at seashore, sporting events

1869 - Suez Canal opens - financed by French, English later took over
Khedive Ismail of Egypt deposed 1879
Decline of Ottoman Empire caused Russia and Germany to become rivals
France loaned money, entered into defensive alliance with Russia 1894, eventually included Britain

Bismarck resigned (pushed out) in 1894?

Francis Joseph of Austria - 1848-1916 wanted to punished Serbia, asked Germany for help
July 23, 1914 -
July 28 - Austria declared war on Serbia
Germany attempted to secure British neutrality
Lord Grey 1851-1917 - proposed European congress to deal with matter
Helmuth von Moltke 1848-1916 - privately encouraged Austria to wage war on Serbia
Wilhelm II 1859-1941 -

Lecture 17 - Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution


Patent Laws - Protects intellectual property
Turnip Townsend - Nickname of Lord Townsend, improver of agriculture
Coke of Holkham - Improver of agriculture in 18th century
Thomas Savery - Invented steam engine, used for pumping water out of mines
James Watt - Scotsman who perfected modern steam engine, 1769
The Terror - French Revolution - period when guillotine ruled (50,000 people executed)
Jacques Danton - Dynamic, moderate leader of French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre - Took French Revolution to extremes, headed "committee of public safety"
Napoleon Bonaparte - Consolidated gains of French Revolution and used it for conquest
Nationalism - force of 19th century, resisted internationalism of revolution
John Wilkinson - Great iron master, propelled Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution - started in England in 1760 and spread to other parts of Europe
Expanded the economy while maintaining a hierarchical society (from status/nobility before to wealth/merit based afterwards - occupation prestige)
Cities and literacy were two of the important results.
England - was geographically secure island, in physical position to exploit Atlantic trade routes, had patent laws
Requirements - adequate transportation for goods, commercial climate to market/sell goods, agriculture must support those working in factories instead of fields, creative climate to allow entrepreneurs to flourish
Jethro Tull - invented the seed drill
Rotherham plow - used only two horses and one man
Estuaries were dredged to allow larger ships through
Turnpike act - allowed improvement of roads (tolls)
Postal systems
Canals - 1758 Duke of Bridgewater - canals covered Britain
Railways came along after 1829
Samuel Crompton's mule - combination of water frame and spinning jenny (1779)
First factories created at end of 18th century
Lafayette - Revolutionary leader of France who wanted moderate reforms
1792 - War declared with Austria and Prussia